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*British Culture Studies*

I. The British History Invasions 1) Prehistoric Britain 2) Celtic Britain 3) Roman Britain 4) Anglo-Saxon Britain 5) Scandinavian (Viking) Britain 6) Norman Britain 
1) Prehistoric Britain 1. Geographical and climatic characteristics - the part of the mainland, - cut of the mainland, - impact on the present of Britons. 2. Inhabitants: occupation, way of life and culture 
a) The Iberians Occupation: worriers Used: stone and iron weapons Could do: ground and polish stones, makes jewelry and statues  Lived on: gathering food and hunting Lived in: organized communes 
b) The Beakers* *Etymology: Beaker culture – pottery style, a distinctive inverted bell shape of pots Occupation: hunting («Archer people») and agriculture - They were travelling from place to place ‘cause of cultivating. 
2) Celtic Britain 6th – 3rd BC Language: Celtic (still preserved in Scotland, Wales and Ireland; the oldest living language in Europe) Lived: occupied most part of the British Islands Tribes: - Britons  - Picts - Scots/Gaels - Druids* 
a) The Britons (etym. Gr. Pritannoi – «tattooed people») - fierce characters - able worriers - iron and steel weapons - planned defense (back to back strategy) - a frightening war-cry ‘Camyx – music instrument of the Britons 

 b) The Picts (etym. from Latin «Picti» - «painted» or from the Celtic name of the tribe, Pehta, «the fighters») - worriers, farmers, hunters, fishers, merchants, pirates  - developed «Pictish Art» (резьба по камню – stone carving) 
c) The Scots/Gaels (etym. is unknown) Language: Scottish Gaelic Occupation: going for wars, farming Scottish outfit:  - kilt (tartan) - claymore 
d) The Druids Celtic pagan priests: - the island of Anglesey - religious - knowledgeable - magic ceremonies - influence on the Iribes - feared by the Britons 
Common Celtic features: - Religion: pagans - Housing: Roundhouse (wooden posts, stems and branches were woven around (wattled walls), daub (a mixture of mud, cow dung, water and straw), thatched and holed roof, a fire in the center of the house, cauldron (a big pot) hanging over the fire) - Hierarchy: ruled be chiefs, military leaders => kings and queens or pregnants* *(a title of a chief leader in war, from pen «head» + dragon) - Occupation: agriculture (kept cattle, used plows), wars (able worriers), hunting - Knew how to use: iron (Iron Age), tin (Tin Islands), copper - Appearance and clothes:  tall, blue-eyed, white haired long moustaches (no beards) painted faces blue (wood plant) wore fancy jewellery (status indicator) with symmetrical designs and patterns (triskeles) colored clothes (tartan clothes) males: a tunic with a belt, a cleak and trousers females: dresses fastened with broaches neck tares - Reliation and Belief:  pagans: sacrificed (animals, humans, valuable objects) worshipped the sculls, the moon, the sun and the stars believed in supernatural forces are in every aspect of the natural world - Celtic symbols: Claddagh ring, Celtic cross, Celtic knot Prehistoric period  Mystery  No exact things (взаимосвязанный круг) Stonehenge: druidical temple, calendar, ritual graves, astronomical observatory, sky map British prehistoric arts 

 Celtic origin in Modern English 
Modern English Celtic English Avon Anvil Meaning river Downs, Dundec Dun Hills, bare, open, highland Loch Ness Monster Loch Lake Ben Nevis, Ben More (Scotland) Ben Mountain 

01.06.2017; 01:20
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