Words composed of separable root morphemes are called com p o u n d s. The spelling of compound words differs. They may be spelled as one word, with a hyphen or as two separate words. Among compound words we find compound nouns, adjectives, verbs.
Word stress in compounds depends on the semantic weight of the elements. When the first element determines. restricts the second one or introduces some contrast it is stressed while the second element of the compound remains unstressed though the stressed vowel of the second element retains its qualitative and quantitative prominence. This is the case with the majority of compound nouns. They are usually single-stressed, eg: 'reading-room. 'writing-table, apple-tree. 'suitcase. 'raincoat. 'music-hall, 'blackboard. fountain-pen.
This type of word stress in compound nouns differentiates compounds from word combinations in which every word has a stress, cf:
'blackbird – дрозд 'black 'bird – черная птица
'blackboard – классная доска 'black 'board – черная доска
'qold 'fish – рыба золотого цвета 'goldfish –золотая рыбка
'strong 'box – крепкий ящик 'strong-box - сейф
Double-stressed compound nouns are comparatively rare. In such compounds both elements are equally important, eg 'gas- 'stove, 'gas-'ring, 'absent-'mindedness, 'ice-'cream.
Compound adjectives have generally two stresses for both elements are equally significant in them, eg: 'c1ean-'shaven, 'well-'bred, 'bare-'/ooted, 'broad-'shouldered: 'first-'class. Compound adjectives with only one stress on the first element occur when the second element is semantically weak, eg 'spring-like, 'childlike, 'oval-shaped. Compound verbs have stresses on both elements as they are of equal semantic significance, eg 'give 'in - 'give 'out. 'turn 'on - 'turn 'out.