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19.  В чем состоят основные этапы разработки ценовой политики

The main stages of pricing policy development.

1.    To establish the following aims of pricing:

·      To survive and to thrive: it is the main aim of company activity because of tough competition when there is a great number of companies with similar goods in the market. The main competitive advantages here are: sales volume and market share. Keen (predatory) prices are used for market expansion and increase of sales volume.

·      Profit maximization.

·      To maintain a position in the market.

2. To carry out demand assessment.

It is important to pay attention to the elasticity of demand -  reaction of buyers on increasing or decreasing price.

3.    To carry out the opportunities of a company.

4.     To carry out the opportunities of its rivals.

It is reasonable here to do SWOT analysis or for example PEST/ analysis of internal context.

5.    To choose pricing strategy and pricing method.

There is a great number of pricing strategies:

·      market skimming pricing strategy – establishing too high prices;

·      neutral price formation;

·      keen price setting;

·      strategy of differentiated prices;

·      strategy of  reduced prices;

·      strategy of price leading;

·      strategy of competitive prices;

·      strategy of discriminatory prices;

·      matrix pricing strategy and many others;

and pricing methods:

·      cost-based methods( method “costs plus profit”, method of costs in full, direct costs, method of target income)

·      market methods(price setting according to the demand, according to the competition, tender method )

·      parametric methods (method of regression analysis, method of specific indicators) and others.

6.    The analysis of the following factors, which can influence establishment of price:

·      Demand for the goods

·      Government price regulation(direct control or inferential control )

·      Production costs and launching expenses

·      Competition

·       Stage of product life cycle

·      Product promotion

7.    The final price assertion.


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