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12.  Каковы экономическая сущность и содержание основных фондов предприятия

Fixed assets

Fixed assets are the means of work, which are frequently involved in the production process, while maintaining its natural form, gradually (постепенно) wearing out, transfer their value in part to newly created products. These include funds with a lifetime more than one year and cost more than 100 times the minimum monthly wage.

Fixed assets presented in currency, are called fixed capital.

Fixed assets are divided into productive and non-productive assets.

1. Productive assets, which are involved in the production process, and in turn are divided into two parts: active - are directly involved in the production process (machines, equipment, etc.), passive - to create conditions for normal production process (buildings).

 2. Non-productive, which are not involved in the production process and are intended for direct consumption (hospitals, houses of culture, housing, health clinics).

The following groups and subgroups of fixed assets:

- Buildings

- Facilities

- Gear unit (передаточные устройства)

- Machinery and equipment

- Vehicles

- Tools

- Economic stock

- Other fixed assets. This group includes the library collections, museum.


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