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6. Раскройте понятие и сущность процесса планирования на предприятии.  Приведите характеристики процесса планирования по временному признаку и опишите возможные направления планирования.


Planning is a mental anticipation of future activities.

Planning includes the analysis of current activities and methods of targets’ achievement.

Planning leads to rational acceptance of decisions.

Planning is not one shot event, is circular process.

Continued planning is necessary because external environment is all the time changed.

This means that a plan has to be being corrected and refined when even it is materialized. After finish of plan’s realization, the causes of errors have to be uncovered and the plan is corrected soon.

The aims of planning:

1.      Current identification of risks and chances

2.      Coordination

3.      Motivation

Elements of planning:

1.      Targets. What do we want?

2.      Choices (alternatives) of activities. What can we do?

3.      Expectation. What will happen?


7.      Опишите и  охарактеризуйте этапы стратегического планирования на предприятии.

Strategic planning - is one of the functions of strategic management, which is the process of selecting the organization's goals and ways to achieve them.

Describe and characterize the stages of strategic planning at the company.


Strategic planning process consists of several steps:

1. Defining the mission and goals of the organization.

2. Analysis of the environment, which includes data collection, analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the company, as well as its potential based on available external and internal information.

3. Choice of strategy.

4. Implementation strategy.

5. Evaluation and control of performance.

Defining the mission and goals of the organization. The objective function begins with establishing the company's mission, which expresses the philosophy and the meaning of his existence.

Mission - this conceptual intention to move in a certain direction. Usually it details the status of the company, describes the basic principles of its operation, the real intentions of the management and defines the characteristics of the most important economic enterprise.

Purpose - in specifying mission organization in a form accessible to control the process of their implementation. The main characteristics of strategic planning goals is to:

· Clear focus on a certain period of time;

· Specific and measurable;

· Consistency and coherence with other missions and resources;

· Targeting and accountability.

Based on the mission and goals of the organization's existence are based development strategy and policy of the organization.

Strategic analysis, or as it is called "portfolio analysis" (in the case of the analysis of diversified companies) is a key element of strategic planning. The literature indicates that portfolio analysis serves as a strategic management tool, with which the company's management identifies and evaluates its operations to invest in the most profitable and promising its direction.

Choice of strategy. Strategic choice involves the formation of alternative courses of development of the organization, assessment and selection of the best strategic alternative for implementation. It uses a special tool, which includes quantitative forecasting methods, the development of scenarios for the future, portfolio analysis (matrix BCG, McKinsey Matrix, SWOT-analysis, etc.).


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