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Repetitions of words and word groups.

Repetitions of lexical units may be juxtaposed, in strong positions, distant, and throughout the text.

Juxtaposed word repetitios.  With each repetition  the  word  or phrase changes  its  position  on the syntagmatic plane and is in this respect equivalent to,  but not identical with its preceding  counterparts. The word or phrase thus repeated arrests the decoder's attention, grows in importance,  it may convey the intensity of feeling,  the painful progress or monotony of time, etc.

Consider the importance of such repetition in the following lines depicting the loneliness of a shipwrecked sailor at sea:

Alone, alone, all, all, alone,

Alone of a wide, wide sea. (Coleridge)

Word repetition in strong positions.

By strong  positions  the  beginning and the end of a poetic line, stanza, utterance and paragraph are meant.  It has been noticed  that words  in  these positions are more emphatic than those in the middle. When words are repeated in the initial or final positions they acquire added emphasis, create oscillation (колебание), produce balance and aesthetic effect.  The following rhetorical figures come under this heading: lexical anaphora, lexical epistrophe, lexical framing and lexical anadiplosis.

Lexical anaphora  is  the initial lexical identity of two or more successive lines, stanzas, utterances and paragraphs.

Lexical epistrophe  is  the final lexical identity of two or more successive lines, stanzas, utterances and paragraphs:

Do all the good you can,

By all the means you can,

In all the ways you can… (Wasley)

Lexical framing  consists  in the repetition of words in the both strong positions,  initial and final. Framing is usually used in  lines and stanzas.

Symploce is the simultaneous use of anaphora and epistrophe, i.e. the beginning and the end of one segment are repeated in the next segment :

We are the hollow men

We are the stuffed men… (Eliot)

Anadiplosis is  the  repetition in the initial position of a word from the final position of the preceding line or utterance.

When this linking device is used several times, it is called chain-repetition.

Distant word repetitions.

The term distant word repetition, as opposed to juxtaposed word repetition, is  used  here  to  denote  the  recurrence  of  words and word-groups separated from each other by  syntactically  heterogeneous segments of  varying  length. The reiterated segments are structurally involved because each section of the text in between adds new semantic features to  them.  The distantly repeated words and word groups help the decoder to remember large portions of the preceding text  and  to penetrate deeper  into  the  author's message.  The reiterated lexical units usually belong  to  what  is  known  as  "key"  or   "thematic" words, i.e.,words whose meaning  is essential for the understanding of the message and themes of a literary work.

Distant repetition  throughout the text.  A word or phrase can be repeated through the whole text of a large literary work or its considerable part.  The segment thus repeated is of structural importance and usually serves as a key to the understanding of the main  idea of the work, especially if the segment first appears in the title.

Syntactic repetitions (syntactic parallelism)

Syntactic repetitions can be treated from two viewpoints:  as regards their structure, and as regards their logical-semantic aspects.

21.12.2014; 23:44
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