пользователей: 21212
предметов: 10450
вопросов: 177346
Конспект-online
зарегистрируйся или войди через vk.com чтобы оставить конспект.
РЕГИСТРАЦИЯ ЭКСКУРСИЯ

Coupling. The difference between coupling and parallelism.

The phenomenon of coupling is defined as semantically relevant appearance of equivalent elements in equivalent positions.

The notion of coupling was suggested and worked out by S. Levin. He is not exactly a pioneer as he follows the lead of R. Jakobson who analyzed such structures calling them parallel structures. R. Jakobson, however did not show their almost universal character, whereas S. Levin managed to give a more or less complete description of the phenomenon as functioning in poetry on several levels simultaneously.

A well studied example of coupling is the rhyme.

Coupling may be also defined in terms of code and message: the equivalent elements of the code when receiving equivalent positions in the message constitute coupling. From a linguistic point of view one might say that paradigmatically equivalent elements fill syntagmatically equivalent positions

(Lend your money and lose your friend)

The relevant features of foregrounding by coupling are not only repetition and parallelism but the equivalent positions of the elements repeated.

Parallelism is a relation of syntactic equivalence between two or more adjacent bits of text. Always based on syntactic equivalence it may contain other features of similarity. But there must be always along the element of identity of contrast, some variable feature. It is often combined with repetition but the two should not be confused.

The term repetition may be taken in a narrow and a broad sense. In its narrow sense repetition or reiteration of words or phrases coming close together is a lexical stylistic device.

As the reader’s mind grasps the similarity of elements in equivalent positions he also grasps the logical cohesion of the whole. Coupling is a phenomenon of the level of foregrounding which is more general and wider in scope than stylistic devices and encompasses them. It is a means of structuring not only parts of the text but also the text as a whole. It combines smaller parts into larger linguistic unities and these in turn build themselves up into integrated messages.

 

The phenomenon of coupling is defined as a semantically relevant appearance of equivalent elements in equivalent positions.

Coupling was suggested and worked out by S. Levin. A well studied example of coupling is the rhyme. Here the equivalence of elements happens on the level of the phonemic make-up and the equivalence of position is determined by the recurrence of sounds mostly but not necessarily on the ends of the lines according to a certain scheme. They signalize the ends of lines, define the structure of the stanza fulfilling an integrating and segmenting function. The semantic function is not absent either but its importance may vary. It has been often said that in poetry sound and meaning are in a state of continuous interplay.

Coupling may be also defined in terms of code and message: the equivalent elements of the code when receiving equivalent positions in the message constitute coupling. From a linguistic point of view one might say that paradigmatically equivalent elements fill syntagmatically equivalent positions.

Coupling is especially pronounced in aphorisms and proverbs. Here are a few:

Lend your money and lose your friend.

/Proverb/

The life of the wolf is the death of the lamb.

/Proverb/

Where there is marriage without love, there will be love without marriage.

The relevant features of foregrounding by coupling are not only repetition and parallelism but the equivalent positions of the elements repeated. So it is important to see the difference between coupling and the related phenomena of parallelism.

Parallel patterns are based on identical or similar syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence in close succession.( I dare not ask a kiss, I dare not ask a smile… Herrick).

Coupling is defined as a semantically relevant appearance of equivalent elements in equivalent positions. But it is based on both equivalence and contrast.( Lend your money and loose your friend).


22.12.2014; 01:22
хиты: 60
рейтинг:0
Гуманитарные науки
лингвистика и языки
языки
для добавления комментариев необходимо авторизироваться.
  Copyright © 2013-2016. All Rights Reserved. помощь