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13.The Civil War in 1641-1645.The republic.

XVII century English Revolution (also known as the English Civil War);

English Civil War - the process of transition in England from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional, in which the king's authority is limited to the authority of Parliament, and guaranteed civil liberties. Revolution opened the way for the industrial revolution in England and the capitalist development of the country. Revolution took the form of conflict of executive and legislative powers (Parliament against the king) that ignited the civil war, as well as a religious war between Anglicans, Catholics and hesitant Scottish Puritans, on the one hand, and English Puritans, on the other. In the English Revolution was seen, though, and played a minor role, as an element of national struggle (between the English, Welsh, Scots, Irish).

A large number of royalists joined the king's army. While representatives of the upper classes have been trained since childhood to ride, that was a big advantage for the king, under whose command was strong cavalry. In October 1642, Charles I and his troops headed to London. King's nephew, Prince Rupert, was appointed commander of the cavalry. Despite the fact that the prince was only twenty-three, he has gained extensive experience in the battles for the Dutch. Prince Rupert taught cavalry tactics, which he learned in Sweden. Tactics included a collision with the enemy at full gallop, and the horses were kept side by side until the collision.

At the beginning of the Civil War, Parliament relied on soldiers hired by large landowners. In February 1645 the parliament decided to form a new army composed of professional soldiers. This 22000th army was called the Army of the new model. Its commander was General Thomas Fairfax, while the commander of the cavalry became Oliver Cromwell.

New model army participated in the Battle of Nesbit in Northamptonshire June 14, 1645. Army parliament won in a landslide, taking the most experienced enemies captured and seized weapons and equipment of the royal army. This battle was the defeat of the Royalist army. After her Karl was no longer able to gather a new army, which would be able to repel the parliamentary army.

results of the war

In January 1647 Charles escaped to Scotland, where he was caught. He was imprisoned in Hampton Court, but in November 1647 he managed to escape and gathered a new army. At this time he was able to persuade the Scots to fight on his side. In August 1648 Charles defeated army, and he was again taken prisoner. January 30, 1649 Charles I was executed.

England was proclaimed a constitutional monarchy. Cromwell took the title "Lord Protector", that is the defense of the Parliament, and in essence became a military dictator, initiating the so-called dictatorship of Cromwell.

During the war, killing about 100,000 people. Most of them died because the army fever (typhoid varieties) rather than on the battlefield.

The crown was passed on terms dictated by the Parliament, that is, establishes a regime of limited (constitutional) monarchy with a strong parliament that cemented access to state power of the bourgeoisie. Thus the main goal of the revolution has been achieved.

Among the most important outcomes of the English Revolution - the destruction of absolutism blow to feudal property, which actually turned into a bourgeois (at the same time, the English Revolution did not liberate the peasants from feudal obligations as French peasants freed legislation Convention). Revolution proclaimed the freedom of trade and business. Paramount importance was the adoption in 1651, the Navigation Act, according to which foreign trade transportation could only be carried on English ships or in ships of the country that produced this product. Law undermined intermediary trade and shipping of the strongest opponent of England - Holland. Political outcome of the revolution was beginning in England folding rule of law, civil society. Republican ideas devices narodopraviya, equality before the law, which was carrying the revolution had an impact on the history of other European countries.

20.06.2014; 01:47
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Гуманитарные науки
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