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22. The National Liberation Movement in Ireland. The Act of Union in 1801.

The 30s and especially the 40s marked a further deterioration of the situation of the Irish peasantry. Agriculture Ireland experienced in restructuring these decades; because animal products have been created in the English market more favorable conditions for marketing than for bread. Ireland became hard to develop animal husbandry, in connection with which landlords have started on a large scale to the expulsion of small farmers and the creation of large grazing farms. Huge masses of peasants were left without land. In 1845-1846. years the country comprehended crop failure, killing planting potatoes - the staple food of ordinary people of Ireland. For six years (1846-1851) died of starvation over a million people in Ireland.

All these facts have provoked the revolutionary spirit of the Irish peasantry. At the same time slightly increased the number of working class employed processing of raw materials and transportation. The first steps made the labor movement in Ireland. 
Under the influence of the people there has been a new alignment of forces in the Irish national liberation movement. "Ripilerov Association" was established in 1840 to fight for the abolition of the union in 1801, continued to restrict campaigning
for autonomy Ireland, while the rule of the British Crown. But at the beginning of 1847 was founded "Irish Confederation," which announced a break with the old tactics of legal forms of struggle. There has been a part of the left wing of the Confederation under the leadership of a talented journalist John Mitchell, who advanced the slogan of armed struggle for the separation of Ireland from England and the formation of the independent Republic of Ireland. Expressing the desire of the democratic intelligentsia and young working class Ireland, Mitchell urged people not to pay taxes to the British government not to make rents landlords .. Left wing Confederation began preparations for an uprising. 
In May 1848, the British authorities arrested and sent Mitchell, thereby decapitating the movement. In July guide confederation announced after much hesitation, finally, the beginning of the uprising, but his indecisive and contradictory orders only disorganized it. The uprising resulted in several small isolated clashes with police and troops. Severe repression by the British government to retain their power over Ireland

In 1797 William Pitt appointed Lord Castlereagh as his Irish chief secretary. This was a time of great turmoil in Ireland and in the following year Castlereagh played an important role in crushing the Irish uprising. Castlereagh and Pitt became convinced that the best way of dealing with the religious conflicts in Ireland was to unite the country with the rest of Britain under a single Parliament.

The policy was unpopular with the borough proprietors and the members of the Irish Parliament who had spent large sums of money purchasing their seats. Castlereagh appealed to the Catholic majority and made it clear that after the Act of Union the government would grant them legal equality with the Protestant minority. After the government paid compensation to the borough proprietors and promising pensions, official posts and titles to members of the Irish Parliament, the Act of Union was passed in 1801.
George III disagreed with Pitt and Castlereagh's policy of Catholic Emancipation and after the passing of the Act of Union approached Henry Addington to become his prime minister. When he heard what had happened William Pitt resigned from office and was therefore unable to deliver religious equality in Ireland.

In 1823 Daniel O'Connell, Richard Lalor Sheil and Sir Thomas Wyse formed the Catholic Association. The organisation campaigned for the repeal of the Act of Union, Catholic Emancipation, the end of the Irish tithe system, universal suffrage and a secret ballot for parliamentary elections. The Catholic
Association grew rapidly and in 1829 Sir Robert Peel, Duke of Wellington and other leading members of the government began arguing for reform. They warned their Conservative colleagues that here would be civil war in Ireland unless the law was changed. In 1829 the British Parliament passed the Roman Catholic Relief Act, which granted Catholic Emancipation. However, despite Daniel O'Connell forming the Repeal Association, the Act of Union remained in place.

20.06.2014; 01:18
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