Semasiology (meaning + science/study).
Different approaches to study meaning:
1) referential approach (the basic triangle)
2) functional approach
3) operational or informational-oriented
1) The basic triangle
The sound form is not identical to its meaning because one of the same meaning is conveyed with the help of different words
The concept is the sort of idea of the object and is a category of human cognition and thus meaning is not identical of concept.
Concepts are universal but meanings are nationally determined.
Meaning is not identical with referent either, because meaning and referent belong to different spheres. Meaning – linguistical sphere. Referent – sphere of a real life.
Meaning is not identical to all 3 angels of triangle.
It is expression of the concept fixed in a sound form (letters / sounds).
Any word is two-facet unit: it has a sound form (outer form) and has meaning (inner form).
2) Functional approach is characterized by the assertion that the meaning of a linguistic unit can be studied only through its relation to other linguistic units
Meaning thus is viewed as a function of the distribution
3) Operational or informational-oriented approach defines meaning through its role of the process in communication. It began to develop when linguists were interested of the communication aspect of the language. Within this approach the object of study was shifted to the relationships between the language we use and the situations in which we use the language.
Meaning is define as information conveyed from the speaker to the slistner in the process of communication.