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4.The etymological background of the English vocabulary. Native words in English.

Etymological review of English vocabulary. Native words.

Etymology is a branch of linguistics and extra-linguistics studying the origin of words, their change and development as well as linguistics and extra-linguistics causes modifying the structure, meaning and usage.

The term  Etymology is derived from Greek words: etymon ( the true, original meaning of the word), logos (science, learning).

Native words have a higher frequency than borrowed words. They occur in spoken and written speech. Some morphological classes of words are made up mostly of native words:

1) Articles

2) Pronouns (ecxpect they, their, them)

3) Propositions

4) Conjunctions

5) Numerals (1-100)

The native element in English vocabulary is mostly monosyllabic.

Native words show great word-building power and make up the majority of proverbs and set-expressions.

water – watering – waterfall – to water – waterproof

“Blood is thicker than water.”

“There is no use cry over split milk.”

The native element of the English contain group of classes:

1) Indo-European

2) Common Germanic

3) English proper

1) Indo-European words in English are the oldest one. They have the cognates in other Indo-European languages (Romance, Slavic, Germanic)

  • farther, mother, brother, son, bull, wolf, rose, heart, to sit, to stand, slow, red, 1-100

2) Common Germanic words have parallels in other Germanic languages (Norwegian, Dutch).

  • hand, season, eyes, rain, house, ship, hat, life, hope, to go, to tell, to see, to drink, to have, dead, green, gray, he, self, etc.

3) English proper words don’t have any parallels in other languages.

  • boy, girl, bind, always, word, etc.

14.01.2014; 23:44
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