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12. General characteristics of the article as a functional part of speech. The problem of the zero article.

The article is a structural part of speech used with nouns. There are two articles in modern English: the indefinite article( a, an) and definite article( the). Defines suggest that the object presented by the following noun is individualized and singled out from all the other objects of the same kind. Indefinite means more general reference to an object.

The problem of zero article.

Zero article refers to noun phrases that contain no articles, definite or indefinite. English, like many other languages, does not require an article in plural noun phrases with a generic reference, reference to a general class of things. It is regularly observed with:

  • countable nouns in the plural
  • uncountable nouns used in general sense
  • proper names

Sometimes the article is not used where we naturally expect to find it in accordance with the rules. No change of meaning is observed in these cases. The article is often omitted in newspaper headings, telegrams, in stage directions, with homogeneous members closely connected with each other and joined by conjunction and.

13. The use of the definite and indefinite articles with proper names.

14. Functions and the use of the indefinite article.

15. Functions and the use of the definite article. Cases of the definite article omission.

16. The adjective as a part of speech. Its semantic, morphological and syntactic properties.

17. Grammatical characteristics of qualitative and relative adjectives.

18. Degrees of comparison of adjectives in English and Ukrainian.

19. Substantivization of English adjectives.

20. The adverb as a part of speech. Morphological composition of English adverbs.

21. The adverb: its morphological characteristics. Ways of expressing degrees of comparison of adverbs in English and Ukrainian.

22. Semantic characteristics of English adverbs. Classes of adverbs.

23. The pronoun as a part of speech. General characteristics of classes of pronouns; their morphological, semantic and syntactic properties.


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