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Word-structure (word-building), which studies the elements the word consists of (morphemes: roots, affixes) and the patterns according to which words are built: affixation, composition, conversion, shortening, sound imitation, etc.

Properties of roots:

-main part of word

-must be at least one in a word

-can occur independently (free roots)--although bound roots, particularly classical, occur

-tend to have richer, more specific semantic content

-position is relatively free with respect to other roots (cf. photograph vs. telephoto)

Properties of affixes:

-subordinate part of word

-not necessarily present--some words occur without any

-multiple affixes can occur in a word (e.g. in-divis-abil-ity)

-are dependent (bound) elements (where independent form found, generally to some degree dissociated from the bound version)

-have more "schematic" (non-specific) content; often grammar-like function

-can either precede or follow their roots (prefixes and suffixes,respectively)

-position for a given affix with respect to root is fixed
Conversion, one of the principal ways of forming words in Modern English, is highly productive in replenishing the English word-stock with new words. The term “conversion” refers to the numerous cases of phonetic identity of two words belonging to different parts of speech. As a rule we deal with root-words, although there are exceptions. This phenomenon may be illustrated by the following cases: work – to work, love – to love

Thus, derivation and compounding represent addition as suffixes and free stems respectively are added to the underlying form. S h o r t e n i n g , on the other hand, may be represented as subtraction, in which part of the original word is taken away.

25.01.2014; 00:25
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Гуманитарные науки
лингвистика и языки
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