пользователей: 21281
предметов: 10473
вопросов: 178149
Конспект-online
зарегистрируйся или войди через vk.com чтобы оставить конспект.
РЕГИСТРАЦИЯ ЭКСКУРСИЯ

I семестр:
» Грамматика английского языка
» 2.the subject. It as the subject of the sentence
» 3.the definition of the predicate. the simple pred
» 4.the predicative. The compound verbal predicate.
» 5.the agreement of the predicate with the subject.
» 6. the object.
» 7. The attribute. The apposition as a special kind
» 8. the adverbial modifier.
» 9. the detached parts of the sentence. The indepen
» 10. word order. The general remarks. Inverted orde
» 11. word order. Position of the object. Position o
» 12. the compound sentence. The general notion of t
» 13. object clauses. Attributive clauses.
» 14. adverbial clauses. Parenthetical clauses.
» 15. the sequence of tenses.
» 17. punctuation
» 18. the noun
» 19. the morphological characteristics of the noun:
» 20. the adjective
» 21. the adverb. The modal words.
» 22. the pronoun. Classification of pronouns.
» 23. the numeral.
» 24. the particle. The conjunction. Classifications

17. punctuation

The stops show the grammatical relations between words, phrases, clauses, and sentences; besides they serve to emphasize particular words and to indicate intonation. Thus the use of stops is mainly regulated by syntactical relations: the structure of the sentence (simple, compound, complex), the function of the word or word-group in a sentence or clause, the way coordinate clauses are linked, and the types of subordinate clauses.

To separate different parts of the sentence, the following rules are observed:

With homogeneous members either a comma or no stop whatever is used.

1. A comma is used to separate homogeneous members joined asyndetically.

(The punishment cell was a dark, damp, filthy hole.)

2. A comma is used after each of several homogeneous members if the last is joined by the conjunction and.

(The captain, the squire, and I were talking matters over in the cabin.)

3. If two homogeneous members are joined by the conjunction and, no comma is used

(She nodded and smiled.)

4. If there are several homogeneous members and each of them is joined to the preceding by the conjunction and or nor, they may or may not be separated by commas.

(She was not brilliant, nor witty, nor wise overmuch, nor extraordinary handsome.)

5. A comma is used to separate homogeneous members joined by the conjunction but and the correlative conjunction not only... but also.

(Not only hope, but confidence has been restored.)

6. A comma is used to separate homogeneous members going in pairs.

(They had forgotten time and place, and life and death.)

With detached members of the sentence either a comma or a dash is used.

1. To separate a loose apposition a comma or a dash is used. The latter is less common.

(To think that Johnnie — my best friend — should have acted so meanly.)

2. To separate all types of detached adverbial modifiers a comma is used.

(He drew his hands away, shivering.)

3. To separate detached attributes a comma is used

(There are some truths, cold, bitter, tainting truths.)

4. To separate detached objects a comma is used.

(But instead of the print, he seemed to see his wife.)

Sometimes a dash is used.

With detached members of the sentence either a comma or a dash is used.

1. To separate a loose apposition a comma or a dash is used. The latter is less common.

(To think that Johnnie — my best friend — should have acted so meanly.)

2. To separate all types of detached adverbial modifiers a comma is used.

(He drew his hands away, shivering.)

3. To separate detached attributes a comma is used

(There are some truths, cold, bitter, tainting truths.)

4. To separate detached objects a comma is used.

(But instead of the print, he seemed to see his wife.)

Sometimes a dash is used.

To separate parenthetical words, groups of words, and clauses a comma, a dash, or brackets may be used. The comma is the most usual.

(To occupy her mind, however, she took the jobs given her.)

To separate interjections a comma or a note of exclamation may be used.

(Oh, Doreen didn’t know anything about it.)

To separate direct address a comma is used.

(Arthur, have you thought what you are saying?)

 THE COMPOUND SENTENCE

To separate coordinate clauses the following rules on the use of stops are observed.

Coordinate clauses joined asyndetically are always separated by a stop.

The most usual stop is the semicolon.

(Arthur looked at his watch; it was nine o’clock.)

A colon or a dash may be used when the second coordinate clause serves to explain the first. They serve to express the relations which a conjunction would express.

)Breakfast over, Aunt Polly had family worship: it began with a prayer built from the ground up of solid courses of scriptural quotations.)

A comma is used to separate coordinate clauses when the connection between them is very close.

(A fly settled on his hair, his breathing sounded heavy in the drowsy silence, his upper lip under the white moustache puffed in and out.)

Coordinate clauses joined by copulative conjunctions.

Clauses joined by the conjunction and may be separated by a comma (if the connection between the clauses is close) or a semicolon (if the clauses are more independent). Occasionally a dash is used.

(a library was a most likely place for her, and he might see her there.)

Coordinate clauses joined by the conjunctions neither, nor are generally separated by a semicolon.

(Martin did not laugh; nor did he grit his teeth in anger.)

Occasionally a comma is found.

(But you can’t get at him, neither can we.)

Clauses joined by the conjunctive adverbs moreover, besides, then are usually separated by a semicolon.

(He seemed to have no desire to go; besides his clothes were not good enough.)

Coordinate clauses joined by disjunctive conjunctions are usually separated by a comma. A dash may also be used.

(The whole world had come alive again, was going as fast as we were, or rather we were going no faster than the rest of the world.)

Occasionally a semicolon or a dash is found before the conjunction or.

(She was disappointed — or did it only seem to him?)

Coordinate clauses joined by adversative conjunctions.

Clauses joined by the conjunctions but and while are separated by a comma or a semicolon. A dash may also be found.

(He still smoked, but he drank no more.)

Clauses joined by the conjunctive adverbs yet, whereas, still as a rule are separated by a semicolon. A comma is used but seldom.

(Upon the other step was Mr. Jonas; whereas the youngest gentleman was deep in the booking-office among the black and red plackards.)

Clauses joined by causative-consecutive conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs are as a rule separated by a comma or a semicolon.

(Don’t approach me; for I hate you beyond measure.)

Clauses joined by the conjunction so are separated by a comma.

(It was clear that something had happened, so we eased up.)

Occasionally we find a dash or a colon before the conjunctions for and so.

Direct speech is given in quotation marks. The clause containing direct speech is separated from the other coordinate clause, which introduces the direct speech, by a comma.

(“Come in and have your milk,” he said.)

A colon is also possible.

(Bosinney replied coolly: “The work is a remarkable one.”)

If the clause containing direct speech is interrogative or exclamatory, a note of interrogation or a note of exclamation is used; the clause is not separated from the other clause by a stop, if the clause containing direct speech precedes the other. If it follows the other clause, a comma or a semicolon is used.

(“I’d no idea it was so good!” he said.)

THE COMPLEX SENTENCE

To separate subordinate clauses from the principal clause the following rules on the use of stops are observed.

Subject clauses as a rule are not separated from the principal clause by any stop.

(What he learned of farming in that week might have been balanced on the point of a penknife and puffed off.)

However, a comma is found if the subject clause is of some length and if a subordinate clause is attached to it.

(What had saved him from becoming a cross between a lap dog and a little prig, had been his father’s adoration of his mother.)

Predicative clauses as a rule are not separated from the principal clause by any stop. A comma is often used when they are joined asyndetically.

(Ruth’s point of view was that he was doing no more than was right. My opinion is, she’d come to me.)

Object clauses are not separated from the principal clause by a stop. If the object clause precedes the principal clause, a comma may or may not be used.

(The silence was so long and deep that he looked up, wondering why the Padre did not speak.)

Attributive clauses.

1. Restrictive relative attributive clauses as a rule are not separated from the principal clause by stops.

(You may be sure every smuggler in the Apennines will do for a man who was in the Savigno revolt what he will not do for us.)

2. Non-restrictive relative attributive clauses are as a rule separated from the principal clause by a comma.

(Tom presented himself before Aunt Polly, who was sitting by an open window.)

3. Continuative attributive clauses are always separated from the principal clause by a comma.

(Oliver was frightened at the sight of so many gentlemen, which made him tremble: and the beadle gave him another tap behind, which made him cry.)

4. Appositive attributive clauses, are never separated from the principal clause by a stop.

(The thought that his adored daughter should learn of that old scandal hurt Ms pride too much.)

Adverbial clauses.

1. When an adverbial clause follows-the principal clause, no stop is generally used. When it precedes the principal clause, it is separated from it by a comma.

(He drew the blanket over his head that he might not hear.)

2. An adverbial clause of result coming after the principal clause, which is usually the case, is often separated by a comma.

(The thicket was as close as a brush; the ground very treacherous, so that we often sank in the most terrifying manner.)


хиты: 608
рейтинг:0
для добавления комментариев необходимо авторизироваться.
  Copyright © 2013-2016. All Rights Reserved. помощь