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РЕГИСТРАЦИЯ ЭКСКУРСИЯ

лекскикология:
» Тенденции развития новейшей китайской лексики.
» Сложносокращенные слова. Модели сложносокращенных слов.
» Предмет лексикологии и ее практическое значение. Определение лексики и лексиколо
» Методы исследования лексики.
» Основные единицы лексики китайского языка. Классы первичных лексем
» Аффиксальное словообразование. Критерии выделения суффик-сов и полусуффиксов
» Суффиксы и полусуффиксы «лиц». Суффиксы и полусуффиксы «не лиц».
» Омонимия в китайском языке.
» Лексические комплексы с неравноправным типом связи.
» Антонимия в китайском языке
» Моносемия и полисемия в китайском языке
» Общая характеристика чэнъюев, их структура, происхождение и синтаксические функц
» Иностранные заимствования в китайском языке.
» Фразеология китайского языка. Виды фразеологических единиц, краткая характеристи
» Лексические комплексы с равноправным типом связи
» Пути развития словарного состава языка. Словообразование. Краткая характеристика
» Словосложение. Типы словосложения.
» модели новых слов. План содержания и план выражения неологизмов
» Слово и его значение. Соотношения между значением слова и понятием. Лексическое
» Характеристика языковой ситуации в Гонконге и на Тайване
» Синонимия в китайском языке.
» Словообразовательные типы. Модели словообразования (классификация А.Л. Семенас
техком:
» методы теории коммуникации
» Проблема эффективности коммуникации. Коммуникативные цели, коммуникативные страт
» современные подходы
» Структурные модели коммуникации: понятие модели коммуникации, модель Аристотеля,
» Структурные модели коммуникации: модель Шеннона—Уивера. модель М. де Флера, цирк
» структурные модели : двухканальная модель коммуникации, модель двусту
» Основные элементы коммуникационного процесса: источник, кодирование и декодирова
» stages/participants of the tc process
» Plain Language Movement. Plain style guidelines.
» Ethics in the Technical Workplace
» Style in Technical Communication
» Terminology in Technical Communication
» design
» Technical Definitions
» Technical Descriptions
» Technical Proposals
» copyright
» Linguistic status of technical texts according to the Russian linguistic traditi
» instructions.
» Principles of cross-cultural design.
» Translation and localization in Technical Communication
» Cultural elements in technical texts.
» Defining the rhetorical situation.
» Profiling readers of technical documents
» Profiling contexts of use of technical documents.
» The Definition and Basic Elements of Technical Communication ÒIntroduction
» коммуникационные барьеры
» Типы, виды, формы, средства и сферы коммуникации.
» Подходы к выделению предмета теории коммуникации.
» Законы и основные категории теории коммуникации.
» Функции теории коммуникации.
» Основные значения понятия «коммуникация». Чем объясняется разнообразие подходов
I семестр:
» текстовая импликация и перевод
» Эволюция определения понятия «перевод».
» Лингвистика и перевод.
» Общая проблематика и методология теории перевода и
» определение первода
» Перевод и другие смежные науки социального цикла
» Зарождение переводческой деятельности. Перевод в Д
» Перевод в средние века. Перевод Библии как отражен
» Перевод в эпоху Возрождения
» классический перевод в европе 17-18
» Романтический период в переводе
» 11. Зарождение переводческой деятельности в России
» перевод в эпоху Петра1. Указы Петра1 о переводе
» Российский перевод конца 18 века начала 19 век
» Переводческая деятельность в России 19в. В.А.
» перевод.деятельность в россии советского периода
» понятие коммуникации и ком.акта
» схема перевода как акта меж.коммуникации.
» функция переводчика
» перевод и другие виды меж.посредничества
» семантика языкового знака и перевод.сем.основыяз.п
» прагматика яз.знака и перевод
» синтактика яз.знака и перевод
» Текст как центральное звено коммуникативного акта
» инвариант в переводе
» как оцен.крит.перевода эквивалентность комиссарова
» уровневая модель швейцера
» адекватность перевода
» факторы опр.процесс перевода
» безэквивалент.лексика проблема перевода
» Калькирование - как прием перевода
» отношение ориг.и пере.интереференция
» Грамматические трансформации
» специфика семиот.организации перевод.факторы
» Сочетание денотативных и коннотативных элементов з
» Лексико-грамматические трансформации конкретизации
» факторы опред.процесс перевода
» прагмати.потенциал текста
» переводческая адаптация как учет особ.рецеп.перево
» прагмема и подходы к ее переводу
» перевод фразеологизмов
» Перевод иноязычных вкраплений
» каламбур
» социолинг.проблем 43
» экономика
» безработица
» стагнация
» центробанк и его функции
» депрессия
» комбанк
» инфляция
» инфляция2
» денежная масса
» вексель,акселерат
» ввп
» внп
» 1. Что такое экономические потребности и экономические блага
» Кривая производственных возможностей
» экономическая теория
» Классификация способов производства
» Рынок. Понятия, связанные с термином рынка
» Деньги, их функции в рыночной экономике
» Законы спроса и предложения. Ценовые и неценовые факторы спроса и предложения
» Эластичность спроса и предложения
» Полезность блага. Закон убывающей предельной полезности
» Теория потребительского выбора. Правило максимизации функции полезности
» Виды спроса. Эффекты социального спроса
» Производство. Основные понятия. Совокупный и предельный продукт
» Закон убывающей предельной производительности
» Правило минимизации предельных издержек и максимизации прибыли
» Изокванта и изокоста
» Фирма. Производственный капитал. Основные понятия
» Предпринимательство, его функции и организационно-правовые формы
» Издержки и прибыль. Виды издержек
» Общий, средний и предельный доход. Правило минимизации предельных издержек
» типы рыночных структур.совершенная конкуренция
» Чистая монополия
» монополистическая конкуренция
» олигополия
» рынки ресурсов
» Спрос и предложение на рынке труда
» Номинальная и реальная заработная плата. Факторы, влияющие на уровень заработ
» Виды и формы заработной платы
» макроэкономика
» Что такое ВВП. Способы расчета ВВП
» Система национальных счетов и ее составляющие
» недостатки снс и альтернативные показатели развития экономики
» Понятие совокупного спроса и его составляющие
» 2. Совокупное предложение. Отрезки кривой совокупного предложения
» Неценовые факторы совокупного предложения
» 4. Понятие макроэкономического равновесия. Модель AD - AS
» 1. Понятие безработицы в макроэкономике. Уровень безработицы
» 1. Понятие и история возникновения инфляции
» кривая филлипса.инфляция
» Антиинфляционная политика России
» Сущность и причины экономического цикла
» виды эконом.циклов
» антицикл.политика
» Кредитно-денежная система Спрос и предложение на денежном рынке
» Банковская система. Функции банков
» 3. Создание кредитных денег. Денежный мультипликатор
» Денежно-кредитная политика государства
» Формирование мировой экономической системы
» Развитие теорий международной торговли
» Внешнеторговая государственная политика
» Платежный баланс. Валютный рынок.
» экономический рост
» кривая беззраличия ибюджетное ограничение
» городская литра
» ручина
» культурная революция
» первая лекция
» 2 менцзы даодецзин
» цаоцао дуфу
» философские трактаты
» балбала
» лусинмаодунгоможо
» послекнр
» буддизм
» среднийвеклитры
» юля

Technical Definitions

technical definition is a definition in technical communication describing or explaining technical terminology. Technical definitions are used to introduce the vocabulary which makes communication in a particular field succinct (лаконичный, краткий) and unambiguous. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_definition

Accurate technical definitions are essential in technical communication. Any new term or concept needs to be clearly defined before it can be used properly in a technical workplace. For example, think about all the new words that have come into the English language since the invention of the computer, such as hypertext, software, Internet, information technology, bits, bytes, monitor, and server, among numerous other new terms. Some of these words are completely new, like hypertext and bytes, taking on their own unique meanings. Other words, likeserver, have meanings adapted to the world of computers.

Each technical discipline has a vocabulary of specialized words that it uses.

• A mechanical engineer must be able to define words like velocity, torque, and viscosity.

• A medical professional needs to define words like cerebellum, hepatitis, West Nile virus.

• An anthropologist needs to understand the definitions of words like flaking station, reflexivity, andkaryotype.

Knowing how to define the terms in your discipline is an important part of suc​ceeding in that discipline.

It is also important to recognize that different disciplines have their own distinct meanings for words. For example, consider the meanings of the word field in four dif​ferent disciplines.

Types of Technical Definitions

There are three types of definitions: parenthetical, sentence, and extended.

Parenthetical definitions—You can use a parenthetical definition to clarify the meaning of a word or phrase. (They are often synonyms)

A butterfly's thorax (body) has three segments that bear four wings and six legs.

In 1929, Earnest Lawrence developed the first workable design for a cyclotron, a device that accelerates protons to high energies, helping scientists better explore the strange universe of subatomic particles.

Sometimes, a parenthetical definition appears in parentheses, as you can see in the first example above. Sometimes, as shown in the second example, the definition is set off with commas or dashes.

Sentence definitions—These definitions are whole sentences in which a term is defined by naming its "category" and the "distinguishing features" that differentiate it from its category.Extended definitions—Extended definitions can fill a small paragraph or even run as long as several pages. In extended definitions, complex terms are defined very precisely by using techniques such as analogies, comparisons, contrasts, exam​ples, negation, and graphics/

Planning and Researching Technical Definitions

In most cases, writing parenthetical and sentence definitions does not require a great amount of preparation. However, if you are writing an extended definition, you will need to spend some time doing research and collecting information.

Planning

Whatever kind of definition you are writing, you should start by gaining a full under​standing of the term you are defining and the context in which that term is being used. A good way to start defining a term is to ask the Five-W and How Questions.

Who needs this definition, and what is their familiarity with terms in this field?

What amount of detail will be needed to accurately define this term for these readers?

Where will this definition be used in the document and elsewhere?

When will this definition be used?

Why is this definition needed?

How might this definition be used in the document and elsewhere?

Your answers to these questions will help you decide what kinds of information you should include in your definition. Expert readers in your own discipline probably don't need an overly-detailed definition of a term. They simply want to know how you are using the term in your document. Nonexpert readers, on the other hand, will probably need a more detailed definition.

Take Note

Of course, there are exceptions. Nonexpert readers would quickly grow tired of a highly detailed definition of a common word like butterfly. Expert readers, on the other hand, may need you to more clearly define butterfly, because there are many insects that are called butterflies (skippers, longtails, moths) that are not true butterflies.

 

Once you have briefly answered the Five-W and How Questions, you are ready to start thinking about the subject, purpose, readers, and context of use for your definition.

SUBJECT Think about what kinds of information are needed to write an accurate definition of this term. What information does your reader need to know to under​stand the term? What information is not within the scope of your subject?

PURPOSE Write down why you are defining this term. Are you offering a new defin​ition of this term? Are you trying to distinguish your definition of the term from other definitions of it? Are you striving for a certain level of accuracy? Your purpose statement might say something like

My purpose is to define the word butterfly in this report so that my readers will understand the differences between true butterflies (Papilionoidea) and other winged insects that are mistakenly called butterflies.

READERS When considering your readers, your first task should be to assess their level of expertise and what kinds of information they will need. After all, ex​perts and nonexperts require different kinds of information to take action or make a decision.

Primary readers (action takers)—These readers need to know enough infor​mation to make informed choices about your subject. You need to offer enough information for them to be able to understand the term without overwhelming them with unnecessary details.

Secondary readers (advisors)—These readers may be experts in your field who are advising the primary readers. They will mainly be looking for accu​racy in your definition.

Tertiary readers (evaluators)—Your tertiary readers might be just about anyone else who is interested in your document. They might include lawyers, auditors, accountants, or reporters who will be paying close atten​tion to how you define your terms.

Gatekeepers (supervisors)—Your supervisors will be concerned about how you define any terms. They will be looking for accuracy and clarity.

CONTEXT OF USE Definitions are used in a variety of places and times. Think about the places where your readers might use or need your definition. Do you need to define your terms up front? Or, should you put many definitions in a glossary in the appendix?

Also, don't forget that definitions can involve political, ethical, and legal consider​ations. How you define a word can make a big difference in a lawsuit (судебн. процесс).

Researching

When researching your definition, you should draw information from online, print, and empirical sources. Here are a few strategies that are especially applicable to writ​ing definitions.

Do background research—Start out by using print and online dictionaries to gather existing definitions. Locate information about the origins and history of the word.

Find examples of usage—Using a variety of sources, gather sentences in which the word is used. Put the word into just about any Internet search engine, like Ask.com, shown in Figure 18.2. You will find many sentences that use the word. Also, you should take notes on how people use the word in everyday usage.

Compare and contrast—Identify similarities and differences between your subject and other things. You can make direct comparisons and note con​trasts between similar things (e.g.,"Keller Hall is larger and more modern than Ortega Hall"). Or, you can compare and contrast dissimilar things (e.g.,"The upright granite rocks in this valley stand tall, unlike the smaller sandstone rocks found farther down the river").

Collect visuals—Collect pictures and illustrations of your subject. You can also make your own visuals, using a camera, scanner, or drawings you made yourself.

The key to researching a definition is not to rely solely on the definitions you find in dictionaries. Dictionary definitions are rather generic and static. They rarely capture the full evolution and usage of a word, especially in technical disciplines. Instead, do research of your own to gain a fuller understanding of the word you are trying to define.

 

Organizing and Drafting Technical Definitions

When defining a term, you first need to gain a thorough understanding of it and the contexts in which it is used. In some situations, you may already have a rather firm understanding of the concept but cannot offer a precise definition. For example, almost anyone knows what a biological virus is, but few people would be able to offer a precise definition. So, as you begin organizing and drafting, think about the kinds of information your readers need to properly understand your term.

Parenthetical Definitions

Parenthetical definitions use a word or phrase to define a term when it is first used in a technical document. The easiest way to come up with a parenthetical definition is to look in a dictionary, glossary, or thesaurus [0i:sores] for a synonym (an alternative word that has almost the same meaning).

Traditional paper-based dictionaries are helpful at this point, but there are also many dictionaries and glossaries on the Internet, like Merriam-Webster online (www.merriam-webster.com), Dictionary.com, the Oxford English Dictionary (www.oed.com), and Bartleby.com. Moreover, each field or discipline usually has an online dictionary or glossary that you can use. You can find them with an Internet search engine.

Researching

When researching your definition, you should draw information from online, print, and empirical sources. Here are a few strategies that are especially applicable to writ​ing definitions.

Do background research—Start out by using print and online dictionaries to gather existing definitions. Locate information about the origins and history of the word.

Find examples of usage—Using a variety of sources, gather sentences in which the word is used. Put the word into just about any Internet search engine, like Ask.com, shown in Figure 18.2. You will find many sentences that use the word. Also, you should take notes on how people use the word in everyday usage.

Compare and contrast—Identify similarities and differences between your subject and other things. You can make direct comparisons and note con​trasts between similar things (e.g.,"Keller Hall is larger and more modern than Ortega Hall"). Or, you can compare and contrast dissimilar things (e.g.,"The upright granite rocks in this valley stand tall, unlike the smaller sandstone rocks found farther down the river").

Collect visuals—Collect pictures and illustrations of your subject. You can also make your own visuals, using a camera, scanner, or drawings you made yourself.

The key to researching a definition is not to rely solely on the definitions you find in dictionaries. Dictionary definitions are rather generic and static. They rarely capture the full evolution and usage of a word, especially in technical disciplines. Instead, do research of your own to gain a fuller understanding of the word you are trying to define.

 

Organizing and Drafting Technical Definitions

When defining a term, you first need to gain a thorough understanding of it and the contexts in which it is used. In some situations, you may already have a rather firm understanding of the concept but cannot offer a precise definition. For example, almost anyone knows what a biological virus is, but few people would be able to offer a precise definition. So, as you begin organizing and drafting, think about the kinds of information your readers need to properly understand your term.

Parenthetical Definitions

Parenthetical definitions use a word or phrase to define a term when it is first used in a technical document. The easiest way to come up with a parenthetical definition is to look in a dictionary, glossary, or thesaurus [0i:sores] for a synonym (an alternative word that has almost the same meaning).

Traditional paper-based dictionaries are helpful at this point, but there are also many dictionaries and glossaries on the Internet, like Merriam-Webster online (www.merriam-webster.com), Dictionary.com, the Oxford English Dictionary (www.oed.com), and Bartleby.com. Moreover, each field or discipline usually has an online dictionary or glossary that you can use. You can find them with an Internet search engine.

Sentence DefinitionsSentence definitions can appear in a variety of places in a document. They are especially helpful when a term needs to be exactly defined.

Within the text—Occasionally, you will need to use a word that might be unfamiliar to your readers. In these situations, the sentence that follows the use of the word should be a definition.Extended definitions are usually used for terms that need to be explained with utmost precision. These kinds of definitions are often found in larger documents like reports and websites, where they are used to explain a term thoroughlyThey are also commonly found in guidebooks, handbooks, and websites that are devoted to specific disciplines

Extending a Definition

Drafting an extended definition is like drafting any other document. You are directly or indirectly claiming that a term can be defined a particular way. Then you will need to offer support to back up that claim.

To help you start extending a definition, you might try using logical mapping to explore the many ways in which the word could be used or defined. 

Using Style and Design in Technical Definitions

Technical definitions are almost always written in plain style, and their design is typi​cally not flashy.

Keeping the Style Plain and Simple

When writing and revising a definition, you want to provide your readers with the straightforward meaning of the word. So, there is little need to be overly persuasive. Here are some suggestions for style in definitions:

Use only words that will be familiar to the readers—If your readers are ex​perts, a specialized vocabulary is fine, perhaps even preferred. If your read​ers are not experts, use common words and define any terms being used in specialized ways.

Keep sentences short—Parenthetical and sentence definitions should use the least amount of words possible to provide an accurate definition. Extended definitions should avoid long sentences that go beyond breath​ing length.

Use definitions within definitions—When you use a specialized word within a definition, also include a parenthetical definition to define it.

Keep it visual—Where possible, use words and phrases that allow readers to visualize the subject. Use color, texture, and shapes to define it. Add a graphic. Use analogies and similes. Show examples.

In almost all cases, the style of a definition should not stand out. Using plain style is probably the best approach whether you are writing a parenthetical, sentence, or extended definition.

Designing for Clarity

Since most definitions are embedded within a larger document, they tend to adopt the design of the larger document. However, there are situations, such as white papers (официальные документы) or specifications, where extended definitions need to take on (принимать) their own design

Revising, Editing, and Proofreading

Accuracy is very important in definitions, so you should leave plenty of time to revise and edit your work. Make sure others, especially experts, have a chance to offer com​mentary on the definition.

One thing to keep in mind as you revise is your readers' level of expertise in your field. After all, if you use words to define your subject that are unfamiliar to readers, you are likely making the subject harder to understand.

Revising for Conciseness and Visual Detail

While revising, look for places where you can cut out any information that goes beyond your readers' need to know. Definitions can be extended endlessly, so you need to scale the amount of information to your readers' needs.

Then, look for ways to use the senses, especially the visual, to bring your defini​tion to life. Look for places where you can add color or texture to your writing. Add one or more graphics to help readers understand what you are defining. With these visual techniques, you will help readers gain a full three-dimensional understanding of the subject.

Always look for sentences that are too long or complex. It is tempting to use long sentences to "get it just right." That's fine in a draft, but the final version should use simple, plain sentences that readers can grasp quickly.

Editing for Accuracy and Consistency

Often, sentence definitions end up in a glossary, while extended definitions can be placed in an appendix. When readers take the time to look up these definitions, they will expect them to be absolutely accurate and consistent. So, as you are revis​ing and proofreading, pay close attention to the preciseness and predictability of the definitions.


11.06.2014; 10:06
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