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12. Syntactic and phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices.

Zeugma – is the st.d. in which one subject links 2 verbs that show/have different meanings or 1 verb links 2 nouns that express different meanings. (He took his sorrows and his books to Paris)

Pun – is based on a word play and suggests 2 or more meanings. ( the importance of being Earnest – important, serious, surname)

Allusion – is indirect reference (a st.d. that quickly arouses different ideas and association) Allusion rely on the readers knowledge and his ability some familiar meaning behind a word (background knowledge). ( The spirit of Charlie Harold prevailed in the company)

Epigram – a ritorical device that is memorable interesting, short and satirical statement. (Men must be taught, As if they were not, and things unknown, Proposed as things forgot)

Inversion – is a st.device in which the normal word order is reversed in order to achieve a particular effect of emphasis. Elliptical const -  is the ommition of a word when the sentence can still be understood. (Becky entered the room, her face radiant, her dress perfection. Pale and trembling, Mary opened the door).

Litoles – is a form of understatement which the denigh opposite of a word to weaken or soften a message. ( Mary was not a little surprised)

Represented speech – representation of the actual utterance thought the autors language. ( A maid come in, could she do anything for miss Fleur?  No, she might go)

Parallel construction – successive  clauses or sentences similarly structured. (She loves Dick dearly, He loved her passionately, The relatives hated Dick heartily, the neighbors admired him enthusiastically).

Reverse parallelism (chiasmus) – a rhetorical device in which two or more clauses are balanced against each other by the reversal of their structure in order to produce an artistic affect.  (Down dropped the breeze, The sails dropped down)

Climax (gradation) – is arrangement of words, clauses or sentences in which the next unit is more important than the previous. There are logical or emotional climax.  (Your son is ill. He is desperately ill. He is beyond hope)

Antithesis – a stylistic device based on a sharp contrast between 2 things or phenomena. ( In intellect they are angels, In their lust they are serpents)

Repetition – 3 types of repetition: Anaphora – is the deliberate repetition of the first part of the sentence in order to achieve an artistic affect ( No wonder his father wanted to know what he meant, no wonder he asked); Epiphora – He lived in a city, and he worked in a city and he met his love in a city.; Framing – is the repetition of the same unit at the beginning and the end of the same sentence.

Phonetic devices.

Alliteration – the repetition of sounds in neighboring words. ( Sweet smell of success).

Onomatopoea – is the word, which imitates the natural sounds (ding-dong bells, click-click of the shoes)

15.06.2016; 14:11
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