7.1. The Gerund is formed by adding the suffix –ing to the stem of a verb, and coincides in form with Participle I.
7.2. The Gerund has nominal and verbal characteristics. Its nominal properties are as follows:
a) The Gerund can perform the functions of a subject, object and predicative.
Digging is hard work.
b) The Gerund can be preceded by a preposition.
What’s wrong with borrowing a little money?
c) Like a noun the Gerund can be modified by a noun in the possessive case or a possessive pronoun.
It’s a bit inconvenient your coming in late.
The verbal characteristics of the Gerund are as follows:
a) The Gerund can take a direct object.
No one likes washing a car.
b) The Gerund can be modified by an adverb.
She burst out crying bitterly.
c) The Gerund has analytical forms expressing tense and voice distinctions.
He’s regretting now having come.