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Grammatical synonymy

(widely developed in contemporary English), i.e.  synonymy of grammatical forms, can in no way be neglected. It has acquired an important role, because the idea of style relies on the possibility of synonymy, which allows one to say the same thing in different ways, i.e. in different styles. Certain forms are usually employed in colloquial style, other in formal style or in written form, not to mention that two synonymous grammatical forms facilitate the avoidance of repetition and, therefore, a more carefully shaped result. For example different modal auxiliaries are said to have the same meaning. In May/Can I ring again?, can and may are both used to ask the addressee's 'permission' to perform a specific action. In Students must vacate their rooms by the end of week 9must expresses 'obligation,' as would have shall or should. This point raises the important issue of grammatical synonymy (Can different forms really convey the same meaning?)

 

personification (of common nouns) - Personification can be described as a figure of speech in which an inanimate object is personified, by attributing human traits and qualities to it. In other words, whenever emotions, desires, sensations, physical gestures and speech are stated in context of non-living things, personification is said to have taken place. Through the technique, we describe lifeless things as human. The concept of personification is commonly used in poetry, where things are often described as having feelings. It is also widely used in fiction and children’s literature, though fiction is not likely to stay focused on the personified object for long.

 

Animal metaphors, based on animal behavior, are common in many languages. Here are some from English:

 

That was kind of 'catty' of you.

The problem has been dogging us all week.

Don't be cowed by his bullying.

 

Busy as a Beaver

Beavers are hard working and seem to work all the time they are awake. They live in family groups, looking after old and young. They build strong dams to provide security and food. They keep their dams in constant repair. Their tails can be used as a building tool and as a warning device. Their work creates an environment that other species can use. They cooperate and rarely fight, and will change locations to find adequate water, forest and seclusion.

 

The omission of an article differs from the absence of an article in that it is stylistically or traditionally determined. It occurs in cases where economy of expression is required and is often accompanied by other ellipses, such as omission of prepositions, auxiliaries, etc.

 

1. In newspaper headlines:

‘Girl saw Flame’, ‘CTV is winning Fireside Battle’.

 

2. In telegrams:

Attending cytological congress Rome will stop few days on way love John.

 

3. In newspaper announcements:

Anna Linden, daughter of a Manchester engineer, made her debut...

 

4. In stage directions:

At rise of curtain... goes to telephone; stands at door.

 

5. In reference entries or notes:

See table Taxonomic Classification on following page.

Hellman, Lilian, American dramatist, author of a succession of dramas ...

 

The localisation of form:

to get-got-got (Br.E.)

to get-got-gotten (Am.E.)

 

From the point of variability of use of gram.forms there are some peculiarities^

  1. The subjunctive mood

*If I were a doctor (If I was)

  1. To be/to have

*He be, He have

Ungrammatical usage of gram.forms show low education or low social status of speaker.

  1. The historical present

We use present tense to show the connection of the past&the future. Sometimes it`s called logic present and the author shows his attitude to it.

  1. Continious forms

*She arrives tomorrow

She is arriving next year

11.


12.12.2013; 11:43
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